This glossary is established to identify and explain expressions and references that A. C. Bent uses in his writings. Since much of the writing is over 80+ years old some of the expressions are unique. It will also include short biographies of some of the contributors to the Life Histories from John James Audubon to John Muir.
Arthur. A. Allen -
John James Audubon - (1785 - 1851)
Florence Bailey -
Arthur C. Bent - In the early part of the Twentieth Century, Arthur Cleveland Bent gathered and edited 26 volumes of material on the status of birds in the 48 states. This material was published originally by the government and later by Dover Books. Despite its age, it is still one of the best sources of information on distribution and food for each species.
bounty - In different areas of the country a bounty was determined for various animals that were considered destructive. If a hunter shot one of these animals and turned them into the proper authorities they would be paid the dollar amount for that animal.
John Burroughs -
Frank M. Chapman - (1864 - 1945)
Howard Cogswell -
Elliot Coues - (1842 - 1899)
consternation - concern. "must cause great consternation" refers to the Common Loon causing concern in the fish that it is hunting.
W. Leon Dawson - Ornithologist who specialized in birds of the Northwest states.
finny tribe - a casual mention to fish. Fish have fins, thus "finny tribe".
Joseph Grinnell - (1877 - 1939) Helped establish the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California.
Ludlow Griscom -
Ralph Hoffman - Author of Birds of the Pacific States, my first guide for the western birds and an excellent book.
"just out of down" - refers to the young having moved from the state of having down feathers to having feathers of a juvenile plumage
mandible - The two parts of the beak are sometimes referred to as mandibles. The upper part of the beak is the upper mandible and the lower part is the lower mandible.
morsel - food
John Muir -
Margaret Nice - (1883 - 1974) Authored over 60 articles on the study of birds. She published her study of the Song Sparrow , titled Studies in the Life History of the Song Sparrow.
Nuttall - (1786 - 1859) Created one of the first "field guide" to American birds, A Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and Canada. The Nuttall's Woodpecker was named after him.
offal - waste parts
pinions - wings
red-throated diver - an older name for Red-throated Loon. In Europe they are called divers.
Sea mews - an alternate name for Mew Gulls.
Alexander Skutch -
slough - a muddy area usually near a wetland
subaqueous - underwater; This reference is to the activity of the loon which feeds underwater.
Charles Townsend -
Alexander Wilson - (1766 - 1813) A contemporary of Audubon.